International programs of development assistance are largely a creation of the post-World War II era. After some six decades of this development assistance, the results are quite mixed. East Asia and to some extent in South Asia have had successful economic development because external assistance has had a little role, and Africa, where official development assistance has been greatest, the results have been and continue to be very dismal and sometimes really non-tangible. 

African leaders have started re-thinking and debating Aid and its effectiveness in terms of lifting its citizens out of poverty. Proponents of assistance continue to say Africa needs more Aid but has the debate been well-structured? And of course, yes we are phasing out of the famous Millennium Development Goals and enter Sustainable Development Goals; and these days there is no development paper or research written that does not have “Post-2015” in its heading lest it is…

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